Resume

Maxwell B Cook

1770 Glendola Rd, Wall, New Jersey, 07719 
Phone: 732.403.1140 E-Mail: mbcook@plymouth.edu

LinkedIn- https://www.linkedin.com/in/maxwell-cook-195548131/ 

Academic Twitter- @MaxxwellCook

Profile

Interdisciplinary student with a passion for environmental science. Experience in sales, marketing, and customer service. Experience with social media, Pictogram, WordPress, R and, R studio.   

                                       

Education

Bachelor of Science Degree, Marketing for Sustainable Design (Interdisciplinary Studies)

Graduated May 2019

Focus: Environmental Studies and Marketing with a Professional Sales Certificate                                       

Relevant Coursework:

  • Small Business/ Entrepreneurship Marketing and Operations
  • Principles of Marketing
  • Sales
  • Interpersonal Relations
  • Sustainability and residence 
  • Consumer Behavior

Experience

Marketing Director                                                                                                                                                                2018-Present

Freelance

  • Created social media for a barbecue restaurant on Weirs Beach NH which lead to an increase in customer loyalty and a restaurant producing $1,000 per day in sales
  • Surveyed and made a persona for customer of organic permaculture institute and farm
  • Coordinated social media posts for scheduled events for organic permaculture institute and farm
  • Created logo for a construction company

Affordable Housing Education and Development (AHEAD)                                                                                   Littleton, NH 2018

Media Marketing Coordinator

  • Made promotional video so organization an access $100,000 in grant money
  • Analyzed and assessed organization’s website
  • Compared website and social media to sister organizations  
  • Used both Constant Contact and Piktochart platform for emails, infographics, and newsletters concerning the organization
  • Created and posted content for organization’s social media
  • Created a new marketing strategy guide to facilitate content and frequency of posts

Rook Coffee

                                                                             Wall, NJ/ 2014-2016

Barista                                                        

  • Increased customer satisfaction by greeting all customers with a friendly smile, and providing quick, friendly and personal service
  • Accurately processed transactions through the point of sale, while educating the customer on the premium organic coffees, maintaining the highest level of standards for all product preparations.
  • Contributes to a positive work environment and always a team player with the other employees

Extra-Curricular Activates and Interests

  • Sustainable development
  • Ecological studies on biodiversity
  • Treasurer, Plymouth State Sail Club (2017) – Managed the club’s finances and led club funding
  • Vice president, Plymouth State Sail Club (2018 ) – Scheduled and led club  meetings and activities
  • Member (2016 to present), “Common Ground” Club at Plymouth State– Contributed to the school’s environmental development progress
  • Cooking
  • Fishing
  • Hiking  

Research Article

How and why does green infrastructure add value to real-estate?  

Introduction:

“Green Infrastructure can be defined as strategically planned and managed networks of natural lands, landscapes and other open spaces that conserve ecosystem values and functions and provide associated benefits to human populations. Additional elements and functions of green infrastructure are working lands, trails and other recreational features (Amundsen et al. 2009).5“

Green infrastructure adds values  to real estate by providing all of the ecosystem services that are directly correlated to anthropogenic physical, psychological, and social health benefits. Some of these benefits include but are not limited to “food sources, biomass…decomposition, water filtration, climate regulation…aesthetic value, outdoor recreation…(CICES 2015).1 ”  A key social benefit of green infrastructure is how shared it usually is with the public this is usually referred to as Nonexcludability. Which means “the people cannot be excluded from using a park or cycle track and they do (to a certain degree) not compete in consuming it.(Karsten Rusche et al 2014) 7” These social benefits improve economic capital around the surrounding area because of the people it draws in.  As consumers are more aware developers of real-estate are acknowledging these ecosystem services and implementing them more in new projects and designs. Green infrastructure has been used in recent years as compared to grey infrastructure because “Green Infrastructure in urban water engineering have gained attention due to their lower lifecycle costs—in both implementation and operation phases—rather than traditional gray approaches.(Tavakol-Davani, HASSAN, et al. 2016 )3“ 

A Way of Analyzing Green Infrastructure:

Cost benefit  analysis is one that is used in conservation ecology as well as business. Many conservation-biologist as well as many economist are not aware that these models can cross multiple disciplines representing the same decision making process between these different fields. In the world of business a cost benefit analysis is defined as “the exercise of evaluating an action’s consequences whereby the pluses are weighted against the minuses. It is a fundamental assessment behind virtually every business decision, and stems from the simple fact that business managers are generally rational decision makers, and the net economic outcome of a decision is a critical element to be considered(Kaliski, Burton S, et al. 2007).2” “definition of cost benefit analysis from an ecological perspective…(..)..” A cost benefit analysis could be used to assess green infrastructure from a conservation biologist perspective as well as a economic business decision. Another way of  analyzing green infrastructure’s influence on real-estate value is by the hedonic pricing method. The “hedonic pricing methods refer to housing markets and non-structural influences that are driving factors of housing prices (Can 1992).4” The major drawback of these methods is that they can measure the use values of environmental goods, but non-use values cannot be captured (Adamowicz et al.1994)6.

A Look at Real Life Examples  

With many physical, psychological, and social health benefits associated with green infrastructure there isn’t a lot of reasoning to veto/disapprove. In a study in Germany, people  were randomly interviewed about green infrastructure and their willingness to pay for it. “Within the 972 respondents answering this question, 38.2% stated that they would be willing to pay , which means that the larger share of interviewees supporting any kinds of future projects, were not willing to contribute financially… The main reason why respondents were not willing to pay was that they perceived that they already paid enough taxes and that projects of this kind should thus be financed from public resources Other interviewees who refuse financial contribution argued that their income was too low, or that they would prefer other kinds of investments(Karsten Rusche et al 2014)”7. “Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment in London states that the price of buildings or houses will increase by 6% if there is a park nearby, and by 8% if the building has a direct view of the park. Green roofs, especially if spread over a larger area, has a similar function as a local park…The extensive green roof may raise property value from $2.6 to $8.3 million, while intensive green roofs may increase property value from $8.3 to $43.2 million.(Feng, Haibo al et. 2018)8”

Conclusions:

To conclude this overview on looking at the capital gain to real-estate when green infrastructure is added. There are a lot of factors that gives us reasons why we should want green infrastructure added to our ever-developing world many are for preserving the natural biodiversity on this planet. With the anthropogenic views our society unfortunately many ecosystem services are only looked if they are in the welfare of humans. Fortunately green infrastructure that is well designed benefits flora and fauna as well as humans. With the acknowledgment of  physical, psychological, and social health benefits as well as more demand hopefully this technology will be implemented more.

Citations

Adamowicz, W., Louviere, L., and Williams, M., 1994. Combining revealed and stated preference methods for valuing environmental amenities. Journal of Environment und Management, 26 (3), 271 –292.

Amundsen, O.M., Allen, W., and Hoellen, K., 2009. Green infrastructure planning: planning: recent advances and applications [online]. American Planning Association. Available from: www.conservationfund.org/sites/default/files/Green_Infrastructure_Planning_The_Conservation_ Fund.pdf [Accessed 5 October 2012].

Can, A., 1992. Specification and estimation of hedonic housing price models. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 22 (3, September), 453 –474. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0166- 0462(92)90039-4.

Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES). Structure of CICES; European Environment Agency: Copenhagen, Denmark, 2015; Available online: http://cices.eu (accessed on 3 February 2016).

Feng, Haibo, and Kasun N. Hewage. “Economic Benefits and Costs of Green Roofs.” Nature Based Strategies for Urban and Building Sustainability, Feb. 2018, pp. 307–318., doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-812150-4.00028-8.

Kaliski, Burton S, et al. Encyclopedia of Business and Finance. 2nd ed., Macmillan Reference USA, 2007.

Tavakol-Davani, HASSAN, et al. “Performance and Cost-Based Comparison of Green and Gray Infrastructure to Control Combined Sewer Overflows.” Journal of Sustainable Water in the Built Environment, 2 , no. 2, May 2016, ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/JSWBAY.0000805.

Wilker, Jost, and Karsten Rusche. “Economic Valuation As a Tool to Support Decision-Making in Strategic Green Infrastructure Planning.” Local Environment, vol. 19, no. 6, 2014, pp. 702–713., doi:10.1080/13549839.2013.855181.

Summary Synthesis

When I started my research article some of the “driving questions” that6 first came to mind were “Why do they use a plastic coating for the bottom layers of Green-Roofs?”, “What was the public opinion on Green Infrastructure or Residential Renewable Energy?” and lastly, what was a quantifiable way of analyzing the therapy of plants to humans and how to quantify the psychological benefits of indoor plants.” The topic I choose to write about for my actual research article was “What was the Capital Gain of Green Infrastructure to Real-Estate?” I enjoyed investigating this question deeper because, not only is Green Infrasture my ideal industry but, I believe capitalism is going to be the driving force that catapults the green industry.   I also discussed not only does Green Infrastructure add value to the Real Estate but, it also saves money and has a lower life cycle cost compared to Grey Infrastructure for stormwater management.

    My Applied Project idea sprawled out of me meeting a lady by the name of Pam Knight and analyzing her business model. Pam Knight is the owner of Pam Knight Communications, she specializes in advertising and and communications for farms and ecotourism from VT to NH. For my Applied project I helped local farm D’Acers promote their events as well as surveyed their customers during a Sunday breakfast to help them better understand their audience.    As for my PLN portfolio, my LinkedIn is the most used out of the rest of the learning networks that I have created. I also appreciated the Lynda service our school provides, it has given me a few certifications that I published on my LinkedIn . I feel as if I used my twitter more during the Intro to Interdisciplinary course rather than my senior seminar course. In my twitter account I follow governmental agencies that work on environmental services or conservational work for the most part. Specific Facebook groups that are intended for like minded individuals are also used for gaining knowledge and sometimes meeting other like-minded individuals. Some of these groups include: “Permaculture”, “House Plant Hobbyist” and, “Organic Farmers” as well as a couple of others I could have missed. As far as the community of USGBC goes so far, the USGBC isn’t so active besides the few people I’ve connected with through LinkedIn. Along with the NOAA climate research website I’ve cited on my “PLN Plan” I have also learned from a few other governmental and nonprofit websites and expect to persistently look at them. Lastly, some authors that have books that I am planning in diving into shortly are EO Wilson, Michell Pollen, Rob Greenfield, and Bill Mollison, Geoff Lawton, Masanobu Fukuoka, Joel Salatin, Michael Pollan, Michael Phillips, as well as a few others I did not mention. Not only have I learned about these people in class but, these people will continue the type of information I would like to learn.

PLN Portfolio

LinkedIn is the most used out of the rest of the learning networks that I have created. I also appreciated the Lynda service our school provides, it has given me a few certifications that I published on my LinkedIn . I feel as if I used my twitter more during the Intro to Interdisciplinary course rather than my senior seminar course. In my twitter account I follow governmental agencies that work on environmental services or conversational work for the most part. Specific Facebook groups that are intended for like minded individuals are also used for gaining knowledge and sometimes meeting other like-minded individuals. Some of these groups include: “Permaculture”, “House Plant Hobbyist” and, “Organic Farmers” as well as a couple of others I could have missed. As far as the community of USGBC goes so far, the USGBC isn’t so active besides the few people I’ve connected with through LinkedIn. Along with the NOAA climate research website I’ve cited on my “PLN Plan” I have also learned from a few other governmental and nonprofit websites and expect to persistently look at them. Lastly, some authors that have books that I am planning in diving into shortly are EO Wilson, Michell Pollen, Rob Greenfield, and Bill Mollison, Geoff Lawton, Masanobu Fukuoka, Joel Salatin, Michael Pollan, Michael Phillips, as well as a few others I did not mention. Not only have I learned about these people in class but, these people will continue the type of information I would like to learn.

Below is a picture of my LinkedIn from a mobile platform. Below that picture is my Lynda certifications on a my LinkedIn from a mobile devise as well.

Senior IDS Précis

Image result for green infrastructure
Green Infrastructure used for storm-water management.

Adamowicz et al in the Journal of Environment and Management  1994, states that the major drawback of Dynamic stochastic general equilibrium modeling methods is that they can measure the use values of environmental goods, but non-use values cannot be captured when analyzing environmental services.  Adamowicz et al supports his claim by unaccurate valuations of nature  based off of opinionated analysis of ecosystem services and sometimes corruption.Adamowicz et al argues to create better valuing systems in order to help landowners conserve nature better.  Adamowicz et al writes in a quantifiable way to help legislators and policy makers decide better decisions.

Adamowicz, W., Louviere, L., and Williams, M., 1994. Combining revealed and stated preference methods for valuing environmental amenities. Journal of Environment and Management, 26 (3), 271 –292.

Amundsen et al in Planning, Green Infrastructure Planning: Recent Advances and Applications 2009 claims that green infrastructure is necessary compared to grey infrastructure.  Through conserving biodiversity, supporting working landscapes, improving outcomes by providing more infrastructure, helping the community to envision the future, comply with regulations and requirements, providing a balance between conservationist and developers and, providing ecosystem services that provides benefits to the communities supports his claim. Amundsen et al purpose is to discuss the ecosystem service benefits so that planners are able to recognize them. Amundsen et al discusses these benefits for city planners and policy makers.

Amundsen, O.M., Allen, W., and Hoellen, K., 2009. Green infrastructure planning: planning: recent advances and applications [online]. American Planning Association. Available from: www.conservationfund.org/sites/default/files/Green_Infrastructure_Planning_The_Conservation_ Fund.pdf [Accessed 5 October 2012].

Ayse Can in Regional Science and Urban Economics, Specification and estimation of hedonic housing price models 1992 explains that hedonic urban housing price models offers a different concept of residential housing. She supports her claim looking at examples of how green infrastructure improves the value of residential real estate by the   presence of heteroskedasticity as an alternative to traditional house pricing methods. Ayse Can’s purpose is to discuss how the  hedonic housing price model is a quantifiable way to appraise residential housing so that green infrastructure has a new way of being valued to the housing market. Ayse Can writes this publication like a scientist to help business people such as real estate agents  realized what are the value of the homes.


Can, A., 1992. Specification and estimation of hedonic housing price models. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 22 (3, September), 453 –474. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0166- 0462(92)90039-4.


Haibo Fengin in Economic Benefits and Costs of Green Roofs, in the book Nature Based Strategies for Urban and Building Sustainability 2018,  claims that green infrastructure can increase the value of buildings with the ecosystem services they include. He supports his theory by evaluating the payback period of green roofs and evaluating the money they save and add to buildings. Haibo Feng’s purpose is to analyze the difference from grey infrastructure to its alternative green infrastructure in order to help shareholders of properties argue for green infrastructure especially in economic benefits. Haibo Feng writes this academic paper for all the shareholders of large projects that might include green infrastructure.


Feng, Haibo, and Kasun N. Hewage. “Economic Benefits and Costs of Green Roofs.” Nature Based Strategies for Urban and Building Sustainability, Feb. 2018, pp. 307–318., doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-812150-4.00028-8.

Hassan Tavakol-Davani et al. in the Performance and Cost-Based Comparison of Green and Gray Infrastructure to Control Combined Sewer Overflows, Journal of Sustainable Water in the Built Environment 2016 claim that green infrastructure used for stormwater management has lower implementation and life cycle costs than traditional grey infrastructure.  Hassan Tavakol-Davani et al. supports this claim by their evaluation of  Toledo, Ohio as well as many other cities management towards rainwater harvesting. The lifecycle costs of green infrastructure is 48% more efficient than grey infrastructure’s performance especially when grey infrastructure is overflowed. Hassan Tavakol-Davani et al. purpose is show an example and an analysis of the comparison of green infrastructure to the traditional grey infrastructure. They write this article in the Journal of Sustainable Water in the Built Environment  to promote sustainable designs to policy makers and land owners.


Tavakol-Davani, HASSAN, et al. “Performance and Cost-Based Comparison of Green and Gray Infrastructure to Control Combined Sewer Overflows.” Journal of Sustainable Water in the Built Environment, 2 , no. 2, May 2016, ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/JSWBAY.0000805.


Maxxwell Cook’s Applied Project for Senior Capstone IDS

Survey to get a better understanding of the D’Acres guest and help the owners of D’Acres understand a persona for their customers

To create a journey map and a persona of the average customer for any business or organization, data must be collected. One of the most accurate ways to collect data about customers is to survey them.

 As my Interdisciplinary focus of Marketing for Sustainable Design, I chose to do marketing fieldwork for a local sustainable (permaculture) farm, hostel, and institute D’Acers of Dorchester New Hampshire. The idea of helping a local farm to market itself better came from a business lady I met by the name of Pam Knight. She is an ecotourism marketer in the Vermont and New Hampshire area. I thought that marketing research for D’Acres would be the perfect applied project for me. After having multiple talks with Knight about ecotourism, marketing, and the growth of her specific field, this project is most applicable for demonstrating my skills in marketing for sustainable design.  

Methodologies

As preparation, I designed a survey to help D’Acers understand their customers and what activities fit their guests the most. Basic demographic questions I asked included what sex they were, if they came with their family, and where they came from. Other questions I implemented were about what the customers were trying to get out of their experience at D’Acers. These questions included the following: What was your purpose for coming here? What would be another reason you would come here? Lastly, which of the following topics interest you the most? The last part I wanted to investigate about the customers was the outlets through which these customers heard about D’Acers.

Below are the results of my surveying of the typical Sunday breakfast held by at D’Acers.

Question 1.

Question 2.

Where is the guest from?

Canada

Southern NH

Within this Region about 30 min away

Vermont

Pennsylvania

Upper Valley of New Hampshire

Question 3.

What is the main purpose you came here?

Question 4.

What would be another reason for coming to D’Acres?

Question 5.

Question 6.

Did you come here with your family?

Question 7.

How did you hear about D’Acres?

Also as an added bonus I was able to enjoy this farm fresh breakfast in-between surveying the customers.

A Brief Overview On Permaculture


Theme: Permaculture

Permaculture is a holistic systematic approach to agriculture which usually includes integration of systems and plants as well as closing loops of processes we often find in a healthy ecosystem. Fortunately my school (Plymouth State University) has a program for students who want to take get certified in permaculture which requires the permaculture course I took. The founders of permaculture are  Bill Mollison, and David Holmgren. The word permaculture refers to permanent agriculture which usually requires perennials rather than annuals. The approach of the now common “no till method”  emerged out of this way of farming. The philosophy of permaculture is ”to work with nature rather than against it.” Some other common practices in permaculture are companion plant gardening and polyculture farming both of which means to integrate species that would work and grow well with each other. More anthropogenic systems within permaculture include but are not limited to greywater systems, composting toilets, and renewable energy systems. Some of these systems are considered appropriate technology which means that the technology is culturally, economically and environmentally appropriate for the uses.  Another common diagram that breaks the three principles of permaculture are fair share, Care of the Earth, and care for people lastly.  Crop rotation is also a common practice in permaculture as well this has been inspired by  Masanobu Fukuoka’s natural farming philosophy which is mentioned in his book “The One Straw Revolution”. The farming method not only promotes a natural way of bioremediation and is often referred to as regenerative farming but it also usually promotes resilience in a natural for an ecosystem. As I mentioned in another article I wrote about in my blog multi-trophic vertical aquatic farming is a new discipline of permaculture that promotes polyculture farming in water. Another key aspect of permaculture is adding as many layers to the working landscape  as possible such as a food forest thus mimicking a mature forest. Another concept of permaculture is identifying and creating different zones which means working systems that are closest to you and expand further from you.

Below is a picture depicting the different “layers of a Food Forest”

Key words: Permaculture, companion plant, polyculture, no till movement, appropriate technology, crop rotation, regenerative farming,  bioremediation, resilience, multi-trophic vertical aquatic farming, working landscape

Citations:

Pittman, Scott. “Blog: A Permaculture Language.” Permaculture Institute .

Mars, Ross, and Martin Ducker. The Basics of Permaculture Design. Permanent Publications, 2003.

A Dive Into Living Machine

Theme: Living Machine

Living Machine is a system invented by Dr. John Todd and it is a living system that utilizes natural systems to clarify grey and sometimes black water from humans. A living machine highlights the ecosystem services held by the plants and microbes and a thriving ecosystem in a wetland. This is a classic example of biomimicry and how a wetland ecosystem handles storm surges often filled with organic waste and other organic materials. A living machine utilizes plants rhizomes and the close bacterial relationships that is holds to clarify organic sludge, absorbs nitrogen as well as sequesters carbon dioxide as a bonus service. Other species that are in these systems can include bacteria, algae, protozoa, plankton, snails to perform services as well as the wetland plants mentioned before. This type of science falls under the discipline of ecological engineering.  Compared to the traditional approach leaving toxic sludge as a byproduct a living machine greatly reduces the amount of that sludge byproduct. Another benefit of a living machine in comparison to the traditional approach is it also reduces the need for harmful chemicals which then could be released into natural systems. Another reason these are becoming increasingly more popular is the retrospect of recycling our nutrients that we dissipate.

Below is a link of an article written by Tafline Laylin from the journal The Ecologist:

https://theecologist.org/2010/jun/08/living-machine-ecological-approach-poo

A couple of examples of uses:

  • South Burlington, VT, USA
  • Findhorn Ecovillage, Moray, Scotland

Keywords:

Biomidigation, biomimicry,  Ecosystem services, Grey-water, Black-water

Citations:

“Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet.” United States Environmental Protection Agency, www3.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/living_machine.pdf.

Research Article Outline:

Image result for green infrastructure
Residential neighborhood using Green Infrastructure as a means of storm-water management.

Introduction– Would introduce what Green Infrastructure is as well as would explain its relationship to a cost benefit analysis through the lens of conversational biology as well as a business lens as well.

A Way of Analyzing Green Infrastructure– Utilizes the Hedonic Pricing Model as a tool to analyze it Green Infrastructure. As well as going into factors such as non-exclude-ability services that are open to the public and appreciate land value.

Example of an Analysis of Green Infrastructure- Examples include Neckar region in Germany when the public was surveyed and goes into public willingness to pay for public Green-spaces and Green Infrastructure.

Conclusion – Concluded that Green Infrastructure not only appreciates the capital value of Real-Estate/surrounding Real-Estate but also has a lower life cycle cost and initial cost as compared to the traditional Grey Infrastructural alternative.

Research Article Draft

How and why does green infrastructure add value to real-estate?  

Introduction:

“Green Infrastructure can be defined as strategically planned and managed networks of natural lands, landscapes and other open spaces that conserve ecosystem values and functions and provide associated benefits to human populations. Additional elements and functions of green infrastructure are working lands, trails and other recreational features (Amundsen et al. 2009).5“

Green infrastructure adds values  to real estate by providing all of the ecosystem services that are directly correlated to anthropogenic physical, psychological, and social health benefits. Some of these benefits include but are not limited to “food sources, biomass…decomposition, water filtration, climate regulation…aesthetic value, outdoor recreation…(CICES 2015).1 ”  A key social benefit of green infrastructure is how shared it usually is with the public this is usually referred to as Nonexcludability. Which means “the people cannot be excluded from using a park or cycle track and they do (to a certain degree) not compete in consuming it.(Karsten Rusche et al 2014) 7” These social benefits improve economic capital around the surrounding area because of the people it draws in.  As consumers are more aware developers of real-estate are acknowledging these ecosystem services and implementing them more in new projects and designs. Green infrastructure has been used in recent years as compared to grey infrastructure because “Green Infrastructure in urban water engineering have gained attention due to their lower lifecycle costs—in both implementation and operation phases—rather than traditional gray approaches.(Tavakol-Davani, HASSAN, et al. 2016 )3“

A Way of Analyzing Green Infrastructure:

Cost benefit  analysis is one that is used in conservation ecology as well as business. Many conservation-biologist as well as many economist are not aware that these models can cross multiple disciplines representing the same decision making process between these different fields. In the world of business a cost benefit analysis is defined as “the exercise of evaluating an action’s consequences whereby the pluses are weighted against the minuses. It is a fundamental assessment behind virtually every business decision, and stems from the simple fact that business managers are generally rational decision makers, and the net economic outcome of a decision is a critical element to be considered(Kaliski, Burton S, et al. 2007).2” “definition of cost benefit analysis from an ecological perspective…(..)..” A cost benefit analysis could be used to assess green infrastructure from a conservation biologist perspective as well as a economic business decision. Another way of  analyzing green infrastructure’s influence on real-estate value is by the hedonic pricing method. The “hedonic pricing methods refer to housing markets and non-structural influences that are driving factors of housing prices (Can 1992).4” The major drawback of these methods is that they can measure the use values of environmental goods, but non-use values cannot be captured (Adamowicz et al. 1994)6.

A Look at Real Life Examples  

With many physical, psychological, and social health benefits associated with green infrastructure there isn’t a lot of reasoning to veto/disapprove. In a study in Germany, people  were randomly interviewed about green infrastructure and their willingness to pay for it. “Within the 972 respondents answering this question, 38.2% stated that they would be willing to pay , which means that the larger share of interviewees supporting any kinds of future projects, were not willing to contribute financially… The main reason why respondents were not willing to pay was that they perceived that they already paid enough taxes and that projects of this kind should thus be financed from public resources Other interviewees who refuse financial contribution argued that their income was too low, or that they would prefer other kinds of investments(Karsten Rusche et al 2014)”7. “Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment in London states that the price of buildings or houses will increase by 6% if there is a park nearby, and by 8% if the building has a direct view of the park. Green roofs, especially if spread over a larger area, has a similar function as a local park…The extensive green roof may raise property value from $2.6 to $8.3 million, while intensive green roofs may increase property value from $8.3 to $43.2 million.(Feng, Haibo al et. 2018)8”

Conclusions:

To conclude this overview on looking at the capital gain to real-estate when green infrastructure is added. There are a lot of factors that gives us reasons why we should want green infrastructure added to our ever-developing world many are for preserving the natural biodiversity on this planet. With the anthropogenic views our society unfortunately many ecosystem services are only looked if they are in the welfare of humans. Fortunately green infrastructure that is well designed benefits flora and fauna as well as humans. With the acknowledgment of  physical, psychological, and social health benefits as well as more demand hopefully this technology will be implemented more.

Citations

Adamowicz, W., Louviere, L., and Williams, M., 1994. Combining revealed and stated preference methods for valuing environmental amenities. Journal of Environment und Management, 26 (3), 271 –292.

Amundsen, O.M., Allen, W., and Hoellen, K., 2009. Green infrastructure planning: planning: recent advances and applications [online]. American Planning Association. Available from: www.conservationfund.org/sites/default/files/Green_Infrastructure_Planning_The_Conservation_ Fund.pdf [Accessed 5 October 2012].

Can, A., 1992. Specification and estimation of hedonic housing price models. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 22 (3, September), 453 –474. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0166- 0462(92)90039-4.

Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES). Structure of CICES; European Environment Agency: Copenhagen, Denmark, 2015; Available online: http://cices.eu (accessed on 3 February 2016).

Feng, Haibo, and Kasun N. Hewage. “Economic Benefits and Costs of Green Roofs.” Nature Based Strategies for Urban and Building Sustainability, Feb. 2018, pp. 307–318., doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-812150-4.00028-8.

Kaliski, Burton S, et al. Encyclopedia of Business and Finance. 2nd ed., Macmillan Reference USA, 2007.

Tavakol-Davani, HASSAN, et al. “Performance and Cost-Based Comparison of Green and Gray Infrastructure to Control Combined Sewer Overflows.” Journal of Sustainable Water in the Built Environment, 2 , no. 2, May 2016, ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/JSWBAY.0000805.

Wilker, Jost, and Karsten Rusche. “Economic Valuation As a Tool to Support Decision-Making in Strategic Green Infrastructure Planning.” Local Environment, vol. 19, no. 6, 2014, pp. 702–713., doi:10.1080/13549839.2013.855181.